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Future studies should be larger, at least three years long, and compare different doses and forms of vitamin K in different contexts to improve our understanding of how to best take advantage of this vitamin for bone health.

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Finally, it provides reviews of the available supplements and a searchable database of the vitamin K or have a strong science background, you can click on the buttons that say “click here for a more detailed explanation” in order to expand descriptions that are better suited to your level of expertise.

These roles are shown in the shareable infographic below.

One study showed it was effective but the second failed to replicate the findings and the topic was largely forgotten thereafter.

At the time, researchers thought any effect of menadione would be a result of its antibacterial activity.

This latter finding hints at a possibly very large reduction in the risk of fracture, but a larger study with sufficient numbers of fractures for statistical tests would be needed to confirm it.

The benefits to bone health in this study did not occur until the third year. Thus, while the RCTs are not in perfect agreement, the data are consistent with a powerful effect of vitamin K that takes several years to manifest.Some show the improvement only in the lumbar spine (lower back) ().Bone mineral density and bone mineral content both increased at the lumbar spine (lower back) and femoral neck (the “ball” that fits into the hip “socket”), although not at the hip itself.One of those mechanisms is to stimulate the phosphorylation of protein kinase A (PKA), but how it does this is also unclear: some studies show that it increases cyclic AMP (c AMP), a traditional PKA activator, while other studies show it activates PKA independently from c AMP.In other words, we know that MK-4 regulates gene expression, but we have a lot to learn about ).The vitamin K carboxylase is an enzyme that adds carbon dioxide to the side chains of specific glutamate residues within specific vitamin K-dependent proteins.

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